EUA elogiam acordo, mas estão preparados para agir se diplomacia falhar, afirma Obama

Kerry e Lavrov fecharam acordo sobre armas químicas na Síria

O Globo

Com agências internacionais

GENEBRA E WASHINGTON – O presidente dos Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, prometeu neste sábado que a Síria vai ser responsabilizada se não cumprir a promessa de entregar armas químicas, ao responder questões sobre como o acordo mediado por EUA e Rússia seria aplicado.

Em comunicado, Obama disse que a medida foi uma ação concreta, um importante passo para colocar as armas químicas da Síria sob controle internacional para que, finalmente, sejam destruídas. O acordo surgiu a partir de conversas entre o secretário de Estado dos EUA, John Kerry, e ministro das Relações Exteriores russo, Sergei Lavrov.

– Embora tenhamos feito progressos importantes, muito mais precisa ser feito – disse Obama.

O presidente americano tem sido criticado pela atuação em relação à Síria, enviando mensagens confusas. Primeiro, levou as forças americanas à beira de uma ofensiva após um ataque com gás venenoso ser detectado na Síria em agosto. Washington responsabilizou o presidente sírio, Bashar al-Assad, e considerou que o regime havia “cruzado a linha vermelha”. Depois, pediu aval do Congresso para, menos de uma semana depois, solicitar adiamento da votação e dar mais tempo à diplomacia.

Obama agora enfrenta questões sobre como o acordo diplomático sírio será aplicado, após altos funcionários do governo dos EUA terem dito na véspera que não vão insistir que o uso da força militar seja incluída entre as conseqüências se a Síria desrespeitar uma resolução do Conselho de Segurança da ONU que está sendo negociada.

– Sem a ameaça de força, não está claro para mim como o cumprimento da Síria será possível de acordo com os termos de qualquer acordo – disse o senador republicano Bob Corker.

Em seu comunicado, Obama reforçou que os EUA “continuam preparados para agir” se os esforços diplomáticos falharem.

Acordo em Genebra

A Rússia e os EUA anunciaram neste sábado que chegaram a um acordo de seis pontos sobre a crise na Síria. O anúncio feito pelo secretário de Estado dos EUA, John Kerry, e o ministro das Relações Exteriores russo, Sergey Lavrov, estabelece que a Síria terá de entregar em uma semana informações sobre seu arsenal de armas químicas para evitar um ataque.

– Os EUA e a Rússia concordaram que não há solução militar. A solução tem que ser política – disse Kerry. – Não há espaço para jogos. Ou nada menos do que a plena conformidade do regime de Assad.

Se a Síria não cumprir os procedimentos para eliminar suas armas químicas, a ameaça de uso de força será incluída em uma resolução do Conselho de Segurança da ONU que autoriza ações punitivas. Mas Lavrov deixou claro que a Rússia, que detém poder de veto no Conselho de Segurança, não retirou suas objeções ao uso da força.

– Nós temos o compromisso de impor medidas sob o Capítulo 7 do Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas – afirmou Kerry. – Se totalmente implementado, este acordo pode proporcionar maior proteção e segurança para o mundo.

O Capítulo 7 da Carta da ONU deixa em aberto a possibilidade de o Conselho de Segurança considerar o uso da força, se a Síria não cumprir o acordo.

Os Estados Unidos e a Rússia também chegaram a uma avaliação conjunta sobre a quantidade e o tipo de armas químicas possuídos pelo regime do presidente sírio, Bashar al-Assad, um pré-requisito essencial para qualquer plano internacional para controlar e destruir as armas. Segundo o secretário de Estado, inspetores internacionais chegarão no país em novembro e a destruição das armas químicas deve acontecer até meados de 2014.

Antes disposta a se engajar em uma solução militar contra a crise, a França abraçou o acordo. O Ministro das Relações Exteriores do país, Laurent Fabius, o classificou como um “importante avanço”. Mas nem todos estão satisfeitos: o líder militar do Exército Livre da Síria rejeitou o plano e prometeu continuar lutando.

– Não há nada neste acordo que tenha relação conosco – disse Salim Idriss, descrevendo-o como uma iniciativa russa planejada para ganhar tempo para o governo sírio.

Enquanto caminhos diplomáticos eram discutidos, aviões sírios atacaram subúrbios de Damasco controlados por rebeldes, e forças do governo entraram em conflito com insurgentes nas linhas de frente, segundo relatos de moradores e oposicionistas.

Os seis pontos definidos no acordo são:

1) A quantidade e o tipo de armas químicas devem ser detalhadas e “rapidamente” colocadas sob controle internacional.

2) A Síria deve apresentar dentro de uma semana uma lista detalhada de seus estoques

3) Procedimentos extraordinários sob os termos da Convenção de Armas Químicas permitirão a “destruição rápida” do arsenal.

4) A Síria deve conceder aos inspetores “o acesso irrestrito imediato” a todos os locais

5) Todas as armas químicas devem ser destruídas, incluindo a possibilidade de remoção de armas do território sírio

6) A ONU vai fornecer apoio logístico, podendo recorrer aos termos do Capítulo VII

URL: http://glo.bo/183W5EF

Sep 14, 2013 às 18:40m

Anúncios

With the World Watching, Syria Amassed Nerve Gas

 

By  and 

 

WASHINGTON — Syria’s top leaders amassed one of the world’s largest stockpiles of chemical weapons with help from the Soviet Union and Iran, as well as Western European suppliers and even a handful of American companies, according to American diplomatic cables and declassified intelligence records.

While an expanding group of nations banded together in the 1980s to try to block the Syrian effort, prohibiting the sale of goods that would bolster the growing chemical weapons stockpile, the archives show that Syria’s governing Assad family exploited large loopholes, lax enforcement and a far greater international emphasis on limiting the spread of nuclear arms.

Now, as President Obama confronts enormous difficulties in rallying a reluctant Congress and a skeptical world to punish the Syrian government with a military strike over what is said to be its apparent use of deadly nerve agents last month, he appears to be facing a similar challenge to the one that allowed the Assads to accumulate their huge stockpile. While countries around the world condemned Syria for adding to its arsenal as most nations were eliminating their own, few challenged the buildup, and some were eager to profit from it.

“It was frustrating,” Juan C. Zarate, a former deputy national security adviser for combating terrorism in the George W. Bush administration, recalled Friday.

“People tried. There were always other understandably urgent priorities — Iran’s nuclear program, North Korea,” said Mr. Zarate, who has written a book about American efforts to crack down on illegal financing for terrorist groups and states including Syria, Iran and North Korea. “It was an issue that was always there, but never rose to the top of the world’s agenda.”

Proliferation experts said President Bashar al-Assad of Syria and his father before him, former President Hafez al-Assad, were greatly helped in their chemical weapons ambitions by a basic underlying fact: often innocuous, legally exportable materials are also the precursors to manufacturing deadly chemical weapons.

Soon after Mr. Obama came to office, newly installed officials grew increasingly alarmed by the ease with which Mr. Assad was using a network of front companies to import the precursors needed to make VX and sarin, deadly chemical poisons that are internationally banned, according to leaked diplomatic cables from WikiLeaks, the antisecrecy group.

Sarin gas has been identified by the United States as the agent loaded atop small rockets on Aug. 21 and shot into the densely populated suburbs of Damascus, killing more than 1,400 people, according to administration officials.

The growth of Syria’s ability was the subject of a sharply worded secret cable transmitted by the State Department under Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton’s name in the fall of 2009. It instructed diplomats to “emphasize that failure to halt the flow” of chemicals and equipment into Syria, Iran and North Korea could render irrelevant a group of antiproliferation countries that organized to stop that flow.

The cable was included in a trove of State Department messages leaked to WikiLeaks in 2010.

Another leaked State Department cable on the Syrians asserted that “part of their modus operandi is to hide procurement under the guise of legitimate pharmaceutical or other transactions.”

Publicly, American officials contend that they have done much since then to limit the flow of raw materials that feed Syria’s chemical weapons industry, in particular Syria’s Scientific Studies and Research Center, which has been identified as a principal government enterprise for weapons development. Israel struck a missile convoy outside the center in January, American intelligence officials have said, on suspicions that weapons were headed for delivery to Hezbollah in Lebanon.

“For several years, the Treasury Department, working with our partners across the U.S. government, has taken steps to expose and disrupt the Syrian regime’s W.M.D. proliferation activities,” David S. Cohen, the Treasury under secretary in charge of sanctions, said in an e-mailed statement. “We will continue to use all of our authorities to undermine the Syrian government’s W.M.D. proliferation efforts within Syria as well as around the world.”

The diplomatic cables and other intelligence documents show that, over time, the two generations of Assads built up a huge stockpile by creating companies with the appearance of legitimacy, importing chemicals that had many legitimate uses and capitalizing on the chaos that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union. A Russian general responsible for dismantling old Soviet chemical weapons, who died a decade ago, was identified by a colleague as the man who helped the Syrian government establish its chemical weapons program.

As early as 1991, under the first Bush presidency, a now declassified National Intelligence Estimate concluded that “both Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union provided the chemical agents, delivery systems and training that flowed to Syria.” The same report concluded that Syria most likely possessed 500-kilogram aerial bombs containing sarin — larger, it appears, than the warheads mounted atop rockets that killed so many in the Ghouta suburbs of Damascus on Aug. 21.

While investigations by the United Nations into the attack remain incomplete, a group of outside academic experts reported last week that some of the warheads used contained 100 kilograms or more of sarin agent.

But even with such a large stockpile of weapons on hand, the director of national intelligence, James R. Clapper Jr., reported to Congress earlier this year that Syria “remains dependent on foreign sources for key elements” of its program. That dependence points to an important vulnerability that the West may be able to exploit as it tries to stop Syria from expanding its program.

The most detailed and highly classified cables in the WikiLeaks trove underscore that, while Syria has the ability to make chemical weapons, it relies heavily on other nations for getting precursor ingredients that can also be used for medicine.

Crucial chemicals and the missiles to deliver them have come not just from nations long allied with the Assad government, like Iran and Russia, but also from China (sometimes operating through North Korea) and a variety of Western nations, the cables and other documents show. In a few instances, American companies became players in Syria’s efforts to add to the sophistication of its stores.

One of the best-known cases in the United States involved a Waterville, Me., company once known as Maine Biological Laboratories. The company and several top executives were found guilty of allowing a series of shipments to Syria in 2001, including restricted biological agents.

That was one of several instances that involved deals with American firms, the cables show. In another case, an unidentified American company sold potassium cyanide to a Syrian pediatric hospital in 2006, but made no effort to check whether it was used for treating patients, as the Syrians had insisted was done, or instead was diverted for making chemical weapons.

A March 2006 State Department cable from the American Embassy in Damascus described how Syrians seemed to be exploiting trade with the West. “Syrian businessmen regularly report on the ease with which their fellow businessmen illegally import U.S. commodities with seeming impunity, as well as express concerns that the USG’s lack of enforcement of the economic sanctions” are “hurting those that choose to play by the rules.”

Those transactions presumably included chemicals that could be precursors for chemical warfare.

The Americans were not the only ones concerned.

According to another leaked cable, the Netherlands discussed how monoethylene glycol, an important raw material used to manufacture urethane and antifreeze, was shipped by a Dutch concern to the Syrian Ministry of Industry, considered a front for the Syrian military. The Dutch outlined how the chemical could also be used as a precursor for sulfur mustard, and possibly for VX and sarin.

These and other instances caused diplomats to seek more international control of goods that could aid Syria’s chemical weapons program. In 2009, the State Department pressured its delegation to the Australia Group, the 40-nation organization aimed at stopping the spread of chemical weapons, to push harder to constrain such trade.

“Emphasize that failure to halt the flow of AG-controlled goods into Syria, Iran and North Korea,” said a leaked State Department cable sent out over Mrs. Clinton’s name, could “call into question the AG’s relevance and important role in nonproliferation.”

Proliferation-monitoring officials attribute some of this failure to a simple lack of government resources to police the enormous volume of international chemical transactions, the globalization of that industry, and a greater concern about monitoring nuclear weapons.

“Precursor chemicals have not gotten the same attention as the nuclear trade,” said one Congressional expert, who asked not to be identified because he was not authorized to talk about investigative findings. “It’s been a known problem for a long time, and yet it happens.”

David E. Sanger reported from Washington, and Andrew W. Lehren and Rick Gladstone from New York.

Set 8, 2013 @ 07:23

from:http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/08/world/middleeast/with-the-world-watching-syria-amassed-nerve-gas.html?nl=todaysheadlines&emc=edit_th_20130908&_r=0&pagewanted=all

PM dispersa manifestantes na Lapa com bombas

Cerca de 50 ativistas faziam protesto no bairro. Ao longo do dia, cenas de guerra ocorreram no Centro e na Zona Sul do Rio. Protestos tiveram 77 detidos e 14 feridos

ALESSANDRO LO-BIANCO E RICARDO SCHOTT

Rio – A Polícia Militar dispersou, no fim da noite deste sábado, cerca de 50 manifestantes que protestavam na Lapa, no Centro do Rio. Usando bombas de gás lacrimogênio e balas de borracha, policiais do Batalhão de Choque atiraram nos ativistas, que ocupavam as duas pistas no Arcos da Lapa, carregando faixas, cartazes e gritando palavras de ordem. Com a ação da polícia, houve tumulto e correria em um dos principais pontos de lazer da cidade. Muitos estabelecimentos fecharam as portas e turistas se assustaram com a movimentação. Pedestres e jornalistas foram atingidos pelas bombas e muitos passaram mal. 

“O pior de tudo é que hoje eu deixei de ir a um restaurante em Laranjeiras porque estava perigoso lá e optei por vir à Lapa no aniversário de uma tia. Acabou sendo até pior”, afirma a manicure Iris Fernandes.

O produtor Renato Abdalla, que faz um evento com bandas de rock aos sábados num bar na Mem de Sá, tentava contabilizar os prejuízos. “Aqui geralmente dá 100 pessoas por edição e hoje só temos 10. Alguns manifestantes tentaram entrar aqui, mas não deixei. Vai rolar o show assim mesmo, mas está sendo um problema”, lamenta.

Manifestantes ocuparam os Arcos da Lapa

Foto:  Alessandro Lo-Bianco / Agência O Dia

 

Os manifestantes se dispersaram pelas ruas da Lapa. Momentos antes, os ativistas estavam concentrados nas esquinas da Avenida Mem de Sá com a Rua João Pessoa. O trânsito no local ficou complicado, já que os presentes se sentaram no asfalto. Após alguns instantes o protesto seguiu em marcha até os Arcos, momento em que os policiais recuaram para, 20 minutos depois, reprimirem a ação. Até o momento, 77 pessoas foram detidas durante os protestos no Dia da Independência e 14 ficaram feridas, de acodo com a Secretaria Municipal de Saúde.

Entre os detidos, uma pessoa foi presa por porte de arma; 15 foram autuadas e liberadas — uma delas, um homem com três passagens pela polícia. Entre as autuações, estão crimes de lesão corporal, desacato, resistência e posse de material explosivo. Com os detidos, foram apreendidos um estilingue, um spray de gás lacrimogêneo, pedras, canivete, bolas de gude, bombas artesanais e toucas. Alguns foram encaminhados para a 17ª DP (São Cristóvão) e para a 9ª DP (Catete). Segundo a PM, outros foram transferidos para a 21ª DP (Bonsucesso).

PM perseguiu e prendeu homem (camisa branca) que estaria roubando. Policiais, no entanto, não revelaram destino do suspeito

Foto:  Alexandre Brum / Agência O Dia

Um jovem identificado apenas como Gabriel foi levado para a 21ª DP para averiguações. Ele estava com a máscara atrás da cabeça e entregou documentos aos PMs e, ainda assim, foi conduzido pelos policiias. O assessor jurídico do Instituto de Defesa dos Direitos Humanos, Gabriel Aquino, 24 anos, disse que a ação foi incostitucional. “O que ficou estabelecido é que se os manifestantes tirassem as máscaras e apresentassem documentos, não poderiam ser detidos, já que não existe o flagrante. Além disso, agora estão levando os jovens para delegacias que ficam longe, para que os manifestantes não possam acompanhá-los ou protestar”, afirmou.

De acordo com os PMs, um homem de camisa branca foi detido por estar roubando na área. Ele foi perseguido pelos policiais e colocaram em uma viatura. No entanto, os PMs não revelaram se o suspeito foi levado para as delegacias citadas. 

O fotógrafo Alessandro Costa, do DIA , foi agredido com um chute por um policial identificado com o número 3, do Grupamento de de Ações Táticas, quando fotografava um dos detidos

Bombas de gás lacrimogênio e efeito moral foram lançadas contra manifestantes no Desfile Cívico

Foto:  Efe

Confronto em desfile

Quando o Desfile Cívico na Avenida Presidente Vargas chegava ao fim, mais de cem manifestantes — alguns mascarados — entraram em confronto com a polícia na área das arquibancadas, em frente ao palanque principal do evento. Balas de borracha e bombas de gás lacrimogêneo foram lançadas pela PM para dispersar ativistas, que revidaram atirando latas de lixo e pedras.  

A confusão durou pouco mais de 15 minutos. Enquanto o corre-corre tomava conta da pista lateral, o desfile transcorria em frente ao Pantheon Duque de Caxias. A Polícia do Exército fez um cordão de isolamento para impedir a entrada de manifestantes no local. Mais de 200 policiais mantiveram-se perfilados, munidos de escudo e spray de pimenta, e alguns com extintores de incêndio. Mesmo com a mobilização do Exército, o confronto foi contido apenas pela PM. 

Batalhão de Choque acompanha as manifestações no Centro do Rio durante o desfile cívico

Foto:  Efe

No tumulto, famílias que assistiam o desfile da arquibancada se feriram. Grades que isolavam a área foram abertas pelos policiais para a passagem do público. Luiz Fernando Diogo Dumas, de 29 anos, no evento com o filho, Luiz Eduardo, 8, entrou em estado de choque. “Meu filho não para de chorar. Ele vai ficar traumatizado para sempre. Nunca vi tanta covardia. O que eles (manifestantes) querem? Vão acabar com a cidade”, desabafou, lacrimejando por causa do spray de pimenta. 

Em Laranjeiras, PM atirou bombas de gás e balas de borracha tentando conter cerca de 200 manifestantes

Foto:  João Laet / Agência O Dia

Em Laranjeiras, o tumulto começou às 17h, nos arredores do Palácio Guanabara. Manifestantes saíram do Largo do Machado e seguiram para a Rua Pinheiro Machado, onde havia uma barreira de policiais. A PM atirou bombas de gás lacrimogêneo e balas de borracha. Houve correria e a confusão se espalhou por ruas próximas. Integrantes do protesto atearam fogo em lixeiras e depredaram agências bancárias.

Mulher foi atingida pela PM e idosa se feriu

Dos 14 feridos que foram atendidos no Hospital Municipal Souza Aguiar, apenas três seguiam em observação. A aposentada Nair Rosa, de 69 anos, deu entrada na unidade com escoriações no corpo após cair da arquibancada durante o tumulto. “Não consegui escapar, acabei caindo e passei mal”, contou Nair. 

Já a autônoma Francisca Barbosa, de 37 anos, foi atingida por um taser (arma de choque) de um policial, na Avenida Senhor dos Passos. “Um PM estava revistando e batendo em um rapaz. Fui com um grupo lá e pedi para ele parar. Daí ele disparou o taser na minha cabeça”, denunciou Francisca, que ficou com um grampo alojado na cabeça. Ela foi submetida por uma tomografia e liberada. 

Integrantes do protesto tentaram chegar ao Palácio Guanabara e alguns deles atearam fogo em lixeiras

Foto:  João Laet / Agência O Dia

Mais de dez policiais do esquadrão antibombas da Polícia Civil precisaram entrar em ação durante as manifestações pela manhã. Quatro bombas caseiras foram recolhidas ainda sem serem deflagradas, na Avenida Presidente Vargas. 

“As bombas ofereciam ameaças à população. Iremos analisar se elas pertencem aos policiais ou se foram fabricadas pelos manifestantes”, explicou o inspetor Cassiano Martins, chefe do esquadrão.

Desfile foi como planejado, diz Comando Militar do Leste

Em nota, o Comando Militar do Leste lamentou os incidentes no Desfile Cívico, mas reforçou que ele transcorreu de acordo com o planejado. O evento durou duas horas e teve mais de 11 grupamentos, entre entidades civis e forças militares. No palanque, o deputado federal Jair Bolsonaro (PP) dividiu espaço com dezenas de autoridades. O governador Sérgio Cabral e o prefeito Eduardo Paes não compareceram.

No início da marcha, a população que lotou as sete arquibancadas reclamou da distância do público em relação ao desfile. “Eu comprei um binóculo, porque não dá para enxergar”, criticou a professora Marize dos Santos, de 37 anos.

Set 8, 2013 @ 06:50

from:http://odia.ig.com.br/noticia/rio-de-janeiro/2013-09-07/pm-dispersa-manifestantes-na-lapa-com-bombas.html

Obama’s Battle for Syria Votes, Taut and Uphill

 

By  and 

WASHINGTON — Each morning for the last week, at 7:45, more than a dozen White House aides have mustered in the corner office of President Obama’s chief of staff, Denis R. McDonough, to get their marching orders for what has become the most intense, uphill lobbying campaign of the Obama presidency.

The White House’s goal is to persuade Congress to authorize a limited military strike against Syria to punish it for a deadly chemical weapons attack. But after a frenetic week of wall-to-wall intelligence briefings, dozens of phone calls and hours of hearings with senior members of Mr. Obama’s war council, more and more lawmakers, Republican and Democrat, are lining up to vote against the president.

Officials are guardedly optimistic about the Senate, but the blows keep coming. On Saturday, Senator Mark Pryor, Democrat of Arkansas, perhaps the most endangered incumbent up for re-election, came out against the authorization to use force.

In the House, the number of rank-and-file members who have declared that they will oppose or are leaning against military action is approaching 218, the point of no return for the White House. Getting them to reverse their positions will be extremely difficult.

Administration officials say publicly that they are not rattled by such grim vote counts. The debate, they say, will only be fully engaged this week, when Congress returns from recess and Mr. Obama is back from his trip to Sweden and Russia. On Tuesday night, he will lay out his case for a strike to the nation in a speech from the White House.

“It’s too early to jump to any conclusions on where the House or Senate is,” Mr. McDonough said in an interview on Friday. “The effort will only intensify next week.”

To improve its odds, the White House is enlisting virtually every senior official from the president on down. In addition to members of Congress, it is reaching out to Jewish groups, Arab-Americans, left-leaning think tanks and even officials from the George W. Bush administration, some of whom are acting as surrogates. It is also getting help from the nation’s most powerful pro-Israel group, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, which is mounting its own campaign for military action.

The White House and its allies in Congress differ on how the administration handled the first week of the campaign. Administration officials said they succeeded in dispelling doubts about whether the forces of the Syrian president, Bashar al-Assad, carried out the chemical weapons attack on the outskirts of Damascus on Aug. 21 that they say left more than 1,400 people dead.

“We set a goal this week of making sure people understood the facts of the case,” Mr. McDonough said Friday. “No one with whom I’ve spoken doubts the intelligence. We’re not really debating the veracity of the central charge.”

But people on Capitol Hill said the White House’s initial case for action proved unpersuasive, particularly in the hearings with Secretary of State John Kerry, Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Gen. Martin E. Dempsey.

Lawmakers came away believing that General Dempsey projected an image of military reluctance, that Mr. Hagel seemed occasionally unsure of himself, and that Mr. Kerry exuded a characteristic air of confidence that some members appreciated and others chafed at.

Aides to Congressional Democratic leaders said Saturday that videos of the aftermath of the chemical weapons attack outside Damascus, showing civilians lying on the ground in convulsions, have been shown to lawmakers in classified briefings open only to members of Congress. Senator Dianne Feinstein of California, the chairwoman of the Senate intelligence committee, posted the videos on the committee’s Web site on Saturday for the public to see.

The next phase of the campaign will be more individualized, and more from Mr. Obama himself. Democrats who are balking are being asked at least to vote against Republican procedural moves meant to delay or derail an up-or-down vote. After all the arguments are exhausted, aides said, it will come down to a personal pitch: the president needs you to save him from a debilitating public defeat.

But first, advisers said, the president needs to explain to the public in his speech on Tuesday why Syria is not another Iraq.

“Right now, to most of the country, this seems like a simple question of, ‘Is Congress going to vote to start another war?’ ” said David Plouffe, a former senior adviser to Mr. Obama who, like other veterans of his 2008 campaign, was back in the West Wing last week. “Tuesday night and other opportunities can help fill in the picture for people about both the rationale and limited nature of the response.”

On the day the president is speaking, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee plans to blanket Capitol Hill with 250 advocates, having already contacted dozens of lawmakers to urge them to support a strike.

The advocates will carry a simple message, according to a person involved in the effort: Syria is a proxy for Iran, and the failure to enforce Mr. Obama’s “red line” against the use of chemical weapons by Mr. Assad will be interpreted in Tehran as a sign that he will not enforce a red line against the production of nuclear weapons by the Iranian government.

Israel itself is staying out of what it regards as a domestic American political debate. But Michael B. Oren, the Israeli ambassador to the United States, said he was telling any lawmaker who expressed fears that Syria would attack Israel in retaliation for an American missile strike: “Don’t worry about us. We can defend ourselves.”

Among the most visible surrogates could be Hillary Rodham Clinton, Mr. Obama’s former secretary of state, who aides say is likely to address Syria at one or both of two events this week: a previously scheduled visit to the White House on Monday to promote wildlife conservation, and a speech the next day in Philadelphia.

The White House is also putting officials, including the president, before audiences and television cameras. Mr. Obama will tape interviews on Monday with the three broadcast networks, as well as PBS, CNN and Fox. Mr. McDonough will appear on all five Sunday news programs, and on Monday the national security adviser, Susan E. Rice, will address the New America Foundation, a nonpartisan public policy institute.

The last time the White House lobbied this intensively on a single issue was the 2009 health care law. But unlike that battle, which was largely pitched to the Democratic ranks, the White House this time is also appealing to Republicans. Administration officials note that in private conversations, lawmakers repeatedly asked to have their voices heard on Syria.

The administration’s shift began taking shape late last week at briefings for Congressional chiefs of staff and legislative directors. At a bipartisan briefing that was well attended, Robert S. Ford, the senior American envoy to the Syrian opposition, offered a frightening picture of a Middle East with uncontrolled weapons of mass destruction, aides who attended said.

Tailoring the pitch, the White House and Republican Congressional leaders organized another briefing just for Republican staff members to hear from Stephen Hadley, a former national security adviser to Mr. Bush, and Eric S. Edelman, a former top aide to Vice President Dick Cheney.

Mr. Edelman, in particular, focused on what Republican leaders have been emphasizing: a broader context for the Syrian conflict that includes Iran, loose weapons of mass destruction and the threat to Israel, according to Republican aides.

On the Democratic side, Mr. McDonough met with the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, while Ms. Rice met with the Congressional Black Caucus, whose loyalty might be crucial.

On Friday, Mr. McDonough and Representative Nancy Pelosi of California, the minority leader, held a conference call with Democratic freshmen. Some Democrats have been invited to the Situation Room to meet with Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr.

Leaders in both parties say that there is a narrow window to win over or change enough votes to secure passage of the authorization, but that window may close before Mr. Obama’s speech.

Representative Eric Cantor of Virginia, the House majority leader, wrote an opinion article for The Richmond Times-Dispatch explaining his support for a strike in terms that could sway other Republicans — namely that it could combat the influence of Iran and Hezbollah.

But aides say there was a reason Mr. Cantor chose his hometown newspaper: He had to reach his own constituents, who, like most Americans, are opposed to military action.

Representative Jason Chaffetz, Republican of Utah, called on Mr. Cantor to hear his position but emerged leaning toward no. “I don’t see how they do that now,” he said of winning authorization. “They may be able to squeak it out. But at best it’s going to be razor thin.”

Após desfiles, manifestantes intensificam protestos

Os confrontos deixaram várias cidades em alerta

Jornal do Brasil

Brasil 247

 

Após desfiles, manifestantes intensificam protestos

Os confrontos deixaram várias cidades em alerta

Brasil 247 – O feriado de Sete de Setembro está sendo tomado por manifestações populares em todo o País neste sábado. Alguns atos, como no Rio de Janeiro, acabaram em confronto com a polícia, correria e prisões. Sete pessoas foram detidas e o desfile cívico-militar foi invadido pelos manifestantes na capital fluminense.

Os confrontos deixaram outras cidades em alerta. Em São Paulo, o desfile ocorreu com tranquilidade e as manifestações têm sido pacíficas. Já em Maceió, o Grito dos Excluídos bloqueou a pista onde passariam as tropas e o desfile foi cancelado. Em Brasília, apesar do forte esquema de segurança, houve depredações de lojas. São esperadas na capital federal 50 mil pessoas em protestos.

Depois de se concentrar na Esplanada dos Ministérios e na Praça dos Três Poderes, a passeata segue neste momento para o Estádio Mané Garrincha, onde a seleção brasileira jogará com a Austrália às 16h15. Um cordão formado por policiais tentará impedir a entrada de manifestantes no local.

Confira abaixo reportagens da Agência Brasil sobre cada cidade:

Protesto no Rio tem confronto e prisões

Uma confusão voltou a ocorrer em frente ao palanque oficial das autoridades em frente ao prédio do Comando Militar do Leste (CML), na Avenida Presidente Vargas, na área central da cidade. Houve tumulto e muita correria dos manifestantes que participavam do Grupo dos Excluídos.

A maior tensão ocorria sempre que os manifestantes usando mochilas eram revistados pela polícia. As abordagens eram sempre acompanhadas por advogados do Instituto de Defesa dos Direitos Humanos, que acompanham a passeata, para que não haja excessos dos militares.

Os integrantes do Black Bloc jogaram pedras nos policiais militares do Batalhão de Choque da PM, no momento em que foram impedidos de atravessar a pista, em frente à sede do CML. A polícia revidou com bombas de gás lacrimogêneo.

As grades que separavam o público da pista lateral para a central da Presidente Vargas, onde ocorreu o desfile da Independência, foram retiradas pela polícia para formar barreiras e evitar que os manifestantes seguissem para o palanque montado em frente ao comando do Exército.

Dezenas de carros da Tropa de Choque da PM estão posicionadas em frente ao palanque central. A confusão começou com os manifestantes dos black blocs, que estavam no final do protesto. Eles começaram a atirar garrafas de água, copos e pedras contra os militares. Os policiais jogaram bombas de efeito moral e houve correria.

No momento, a situação voltou ao normal e os integrantes da passeata do Grito dos Excluídos seguem pacificamente em direção à Central do Brasil.

Mais cedo, por medida de segurança, os acessos às estações do Metrô da Central do Brasil e Rua Uruguaiana foram fechadas ao público. Devido à confusão, quatro pessoas foram socorridas no Hospital Municipal Souza Aguiar, no centro. Duas foram feridas por balas de borracha, uma por estilhaços de bomba de efeito moral e a senhora Nair Rosa, de 69 anos, que caiu da arquibancada na hora da confusão e passou mal com pressão alta. Ela foi medicada e já foi liberada do hospital.

Grito dos Excluídos reúne 4 mil em São Paulo

Uma das pautas do Grito dos Excluídos no protesto de hoje (7) é a violência na periferia. Para os representantes do grupo, o que acontece atualmente pode ser classificado como “extermínio” da juventude brasileira, principalmente dos negros. No Parque do Ibirapuera, onde cerca de 4 mil manifestantes realizam um ato, está sendo distribuído um panfleto condenando esse tipo de ação.

“Há um tema gravíssimo que temos que resolver já: a violência policial contra os jovens. Hoje temos um instrumento que encobre essa violência, que é o chamado auto de resistência. É por meio dele que o policial mata o jovem e depois diz que foi porque teve resistência. Nós estamos tentando aprovar no Congresso Nacional uma lei que investigue quando há auto de resistência”, disse o deputado federal Paulo Teixeira (PT-SP).

Com relação ao Programa Mais Médicos, os manifestantes avaliam que os profissionais que chegaram no Brasil nos últimos dias são muito bem-vindos, porque vão garantir acesso à saúde e aos cuidados básicos para a população mais carente.

“Infelizmente, mesmo pagando, os médicos brasileiros se recusam a ir para a periferia. O programa nacionalizou o debate do acesso à saúde e estabeleceu uma agenda com a solidariedade de diversos países, especialmente com Cuba. A gente condena e repudia o preconceito com que os médicos cubanos foram tratados por um conjunto de profissionais liderados por setores dos conselhos regionais de medicina. Esses médicos estrangeiros serão muito bem-vindos”, avalia Benedito Roberto Barbosa, diretor da Central de Movimentos Populares.

Polícia consegue dispersar manifestantes que tentam acessar Mané Garrincha

A Polícia Militar do Distrito Federal conseguiu dispersar os manifestantes que tentavam chegar ao Estádio Nacional Mané Garrincha. Os policiais usaram bombas de efeito moral e de gás lacrimogêneo, e o grupo se dividiu por várias vias da área central de Brasília.

O grupo tenta se unir de novo, mas a polícia cerca os manifestantes e usa ainda balas de borracha. Mais cedo, os manifestantes atiraram pedras contra o prédio da TV Globo que fica no local e atingiram um carro, mas ninguém se feriu.

Antes, quando o grupo saía da Esplanada dos Ministérios a caminho do estádio, em uma das vias de acesso, em frente à Rede Globo, houve confronto. Alguns manifestantes jogaram pedra no prédio da emissora e a polícia respondeu com duas bombas de efeito moral e uma de gás lacrimogêneo.

Segundo Gladstone Leonel, do Levante Popular da Juventude, ações como a proibição do uso de máscaras mostram a intenção de reprimir as manifestações. Ele observou que a manifestação na Esplanada dos Ministérios, de manhã, poderia ter sido maior. A Polícia Militar (PM) teria atrasado a chegada de veículos que transportavam manifestantes das cidades satélites.

A PM confirma, por meio da assessoria, que caminhões e carros pequenos foram parados na Estrada Parque Taguatinga-Guará e na Estrutural, para averiguar se levavam pneus, madeira ou pedras para as manifestações, mas não confirma se ônibus também foram parados.

Leonel espera que o movimento ganhe mais volume agora tarde, antes do jogo entre o Brasil e a Austrália. Cerca de 500 policiais já aguardam no local. A cavalaria segue também para a frente do estádio.

Mascarados foram detidos em Fortaleza

Trinta pessoas que participavam de manifestações em Fortaleza foram encaminhadas a uma delegacia da Polícia Civil porque estavam usando máscaras, capuzes e lenços que impediam a visão do rosto. Os detidos também estavam com pedras, bolas de gude, estilingues e pregos, que foram retidos na delegacia para encaminhamento à Justiça.

Nenhum portava documento de identificação. Segundo a Polícia Militar (PM), são esperadas 20 mil pessoas nos protestos em Fortaleza. Nas páginas de redes sociais na internet, mais de 10 mil pessoas haviam confirmado presença até ontem (6).

De acordo com o comandante da operação de segurança na capital cearense, Túlio Studart, os encaminhamentos à delegacia foram feitos em cumprimento a uma medida cautelar, expedida pelo Ministério Público, que autoriza policiais militares e civis a abordarem manifestantes que estejam com o rosto coberto. A medida também permite a detenção das pessoas sem identificação para que isso seja feito.

Segundo Studart, todos manifestantes já foram identificados e liberados. Um efetivo de 900 PMs está distribuído nos possíveis locais de manifestações, como no Dragão do Mar, na Assembleia Legislativa, no Palácio de Iracema e na Praça da Abolição.

“Estamos aqui para dar segurança a todos, principalmente aos manifestantes e às pessoas que irão sair às ruas pacificamente. Elas estão exercendo o seu direito à cidadania”, disse o comandante.

Manifestações marcam desfile em Porto Alegre

Em Porto Alegre, o desfile de 7 de Setembro foi marcado por manifestações. Por volta das 11h, um grupo de pessoas usando máscaras foi cercado por barreiras policiais que faziam um cordão de isolamento na Avenida Loureiro da Silva, na zona central da cidade.

Sindicalistas da Central Única dos Trabalhadores também protestaram, carregando faixas e cartazes por melhorias no país. Três manifestantes foram detidos na Avenida João Pessoa, portando facas.

Cerca de 10 mil pessoas acompanharam o desfile de representantes do Exército, da Marinha, da Aeronáutica, das polícias Civil e Militar, e do Corpo de Bombeiros, além de alunos de escolas municipais e estaduais.

Também houve manifestação na Ponte de Pedra, próximo ao Centro Administrativo Fernando Ferrari, na Avenida Borges de Medeiros, no centro. Na capital, as atividades cívicas serão encerradas às 17h.

Desfile de 7 de Setembro ocorre com tranquilidade em São Luís

Aproximadamente 8 mil pessoas assistiram ao desfile de 7 de Setembro na capital do Maranhão. De acordo com a Polícia Militar (PM), o número foi bastante reduzido em comparação ao ano passado quando mais de 15 mil pessoas assistiram às comemorações. Tropas da Marinha, do Exército, da Aeronáutica, ex-combatentes, alunos de colégios militares e entidades civis passaram pela Avenida Vitorino Freire, uma das principais de São Luís, onde tradicionalmente ocorrem os desfiles.

Este ano, 800 homens da Guarda Municipal, Polícia Federal, Polícia Rodoviária Federal, além da PM não participaram do desfile. A ordem foi que todo o efetivo ficasse de prontidão caso houvesse manifestação e também para evitar crimes e atos de vandalismo neste feriado. Homens disfarçados do Exército e da PM trabalharam no desfile, mas nenhum incidente foi registrado.

Outras cidades

No Rio Grande do Norte, a governadora Rosalba Ciarlini não compareceu ao desfile cívico para evitar um confronto direto com os manifestantes. O secretário de Segurança Pública, Aldair da Rocha, está representando o governo do estado.

Em Belo Horizonte, as manifestações também já começaram. Neste momento, o movimento Grito dos Excluídos, ligado à Conferência Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil (CNBB), percorre as ruas da cidade. Também na capital mineira, os estudantes de colégios militares foram dispensados de participar do desfile cívico devido à possibilidade de confrontos durante as manifestações.

Em Maceió, uma confusão marcou o desfile. Durante a apresentação, manifestantes invadiram a avenida, o que atrapalhou o trajeto.

Em Goiânia, cerca de 300 pessoas estão reunidas no centro da cidade, em um protesto pacífico. Os policiais abordaram um jovem que estava com o rosto coberto e, por questões de segurança, recolheram a máscara.

Na capital pernambucana, um grupo chamado Frente de Ativismo, Recife Criativo promete ir às ruas de bicicleta e sem roupa. No perfil de uma rede social, o grupo convida a população para ir para às ruas e destaca que o “manifesto pelado”, como está sendo chamado, é uma “forma de promover a reflexão crítica sobre os comportamentos da sociedade, evidenciando a hipocrisia social que se escandaliza com a nudez, mas que naturaliza a miséria e a exploração”.

O secretário estadual de Defesa Social, Wilson Damásio, determinou que os ativistas sejam presos por atentado ao pudor, caso, de fato, desfilem nus. Na capital, também estão programados o Grito dos Excluídos e uma caminhada.

07/09/2013 às 19h22m

De:http://www.jb.com.br/pais/noticias/2013/09/07/apos-desfiles-manifestantes-intensificam-protestos/

Dragnet Shuts Boston; Vast Manhunt for 2nd Bombing Suspect

 

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BOSTON — One of the suspects in the Boston Marathon bombings was killed early Friday morning after leading the police on a wild chase after the fatal shooting of a campus police officer, while the other was sought in an immense manhunt that shut down large parts of the area. Gov. Deval Patrick of Massachusetts said residents of Boston and its neighboring communities should “stay indoors, with their doors locked.”

The two suspects were identified by law enforcement officials as brothers. The surviving suspect was identified as Dzhokhar A. Tsarnaev, 19, of Cambridge, Mass., a law enforcement official said. The one who was killed was identified as his brother, Tamerlan Tsarnaev, 26. The authorities were investigating whether the dead man had a homemade bomb strapped to his body when he was killed, two law enforcement officials said.

The manhunt sent the Boston region into the grip of a security emergency, as hundreds of police officers conducted a wide search and all public transit services were suspended.

Col. Timothy P. Alben of the Massachusetts State Police said investigators believed that the two men were responsible for the death of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology police officer and the shooting of an officer with the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, the region’s transit authority. “We believe these are the same individuals that were responsible for the bombing on Monday at the Boston Marathon,” he said.

Officials said that the two men were of Chechen origin. Chechnya, a long-disputed, predominantly Muslim territory in southern Russia sought independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union and then fought two bloody wars with the authorities in Moscow. Russian assaults on Chechnya were brutal and killed tens of thousands of civilians, as terrorist groups from the region staged attacks in central Russia. In recent years, separatist militant groups have gone underground, and surviving leaders have embraced fundamentalist Islam.

The family lived briefly in Makhachkala, the capital of the Dagestan region, near Chechnya, before moving to the United States, said a school administrator there. Irina V. Bandurina, secretary to the director of School No. 1, said the Tsarnaev family left Dagestan for the United States in 2002 after living there for about a year. She said the family — parents, two boys and two girls — had lived in the Central Asian nation of Kyrgyzstan previously.

The brothers have substantial presences on social media. On Vkontakte, Russia’s most popular social media platform, the younger brother, Dzhokhar, describes his worldview as “Islam” and, asked to identify “the main thing in life,” answers “career and money.” He lists a series of affinity groups relating to Chechnya, and lists a verse from the Koran, “Do good, because Allah loves those who do good.”

One former schoolmate of Dzhokhar Tsarnaev at Cambridge Rindge and Latin School in Massachusetts described him as “very sweet,” adding, “I never heard anyone say a bad word about him.” Another, Meron Woldemariam, 17, the manager of the school volleyball team that Mr. Tsarnaev had played for, said that he had left the team in the middle of the season to wrestle. She described him as normal — sociable, friendly and fun to talk to. He was a senior when she was a freshman.

The older brother left a record on YouTube of his favorite clips, which included Russian rap videos, as well as testimonial from a young ethnic Russian man titled “How I accepted Islam and became a Shiite,” and a clip “Seven Steps to Successful Prayer.”

Alvi Karimov, the spokesman for Ramzan A. Kadyrov, leader of Chechnya, said the Tsarnaev brothers had not lived in Chechnya for many years. He told the Interfax news service that, according to preliminary information, the family “moved to a different region of the Russian Federation from Chechnya many years ago.” He continued, “Then the family lived for a long time in Kazakhstan, and from there moved to the United States, where the members of the family received residency permits.”

“In such a way, the figures who are being spoken about did not live in Chechnya at a mature age, and if they became ‘bad guys,’ then this is a question that should be put to the people who raised them,” he said.

Early Friday, a virtual army of heavily armed law enforcement officers was going through houses in Watertown, outside of Boston, one by one in a search for the second suspect. The police had blocked off a 20-block residential area and urged residents emphatically to stay inside their homes and not answer their doors.

The Boston police commissioner, Edward Davis, said, “We believe this to be a man who’s come here to kill people, and we need to get him in custody.”

In Washington, as well as in the Boston area, law enforcement and counterterrorism officials were scrambling to determine whether the two brothers had any accomplices still at large and whether they had any connections to foreign or domestic terrorist organizations.

Intelligence analysts were poring over the brothers’ e-mails, cellphone records and postings on Facebook and other social media for clues. Authorities have also started interviewing family members, friends and other associates for information about the men, and any possible ties to extremist groups or causes, officials said.

Federal officials are also checking to see if either brother had traveled outside the United States, perhaps to receive training. “They will take these guys’ lives apart,” said one senior retired law enforcement official.

As the manhunt grew in intensity, law enforcement officials throughout New England tried to chase down leads.

The authorities in Boston notified transit police officials that there was a possibility the surviving suspect had boarded the last Amtrak train from Boston bound for New York City in the early morning on Friday, according to an official with knowledge of the matter.

The New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority Police, which has authority over the tracks in New York and Connecticut, along with the police from Norwalk, Ct., stopped that train between the East Norwalk and Westport, Ct., stations; the Norwalk Police Department’s SWAT team swept the train, but did not find the suspect, the official said. While the authorities believe it was unlikely he was aboard, they were reviewing video surveillance footage from the stations in Providence, New Haven and New London to be sure that the suspect did not get off before the train was stopped and searched.

At least one Metro North train, operated by the MTA on the same tracks over which Amtrak travels, was also stopped by the Westport Police for reasons that were unclear, the official said.

And the Connecticut State Police announced that it had received information suggesting that the suspect could be operating a gray Honda CRV, with a Massachusetts registration number 316 ES9. “Connecticut troopers are posted strategically in our state and continue to communicate with Massachusetts authorities,” the state police said in a statement.

In Boston, where gunfire ricocheted around a tranquil neighborhood, residents were later told to go into their basements and stay away from windows.

The pursuit began after 10 p.m. Thursday when two men robbed a 7-Eleven near Central Square in Cambridge. A security camera caught a man identified as one of the suspects wearing a gray hooded shirt.

About 10:30 p.m., the police received reports that Sean Collier, a campus security officer at M.I.T., had been shot while he sat in his police cruiser. He was found with multiple gunshot wounds, according to a statement issued by the acting Middlesex district attorney, Michael Pelgro, Cambridge Police Commissioner Robert C. Haas and the M.I.T. police chief, John DiFava. The officer was taken to Massachusetts General Hospital, where he was pronounced dead.

A short time later, the police received reports of an armed carjacking of a Mercedes sport-utility vehicle by two males in the area of Third Street in Cambridge, the statement said. “The victim was carjacked at gunpoint by two males and was kept in the car with the suspects for approximately a half hour,” the statement said. He was later released, uninjured, at a gas station on Memorial Drive in Cambridge.

The police immediately began to search for the vehicle and pursued it into Watertown. During the chase, “explosive devices were reportedly thrown from car by the suspects,” the statement said, and the suspects and police exchanged gunfire in the area of Dexter Avenue and Laurel Street.

A Watertown resident, Andrew Kitzenberg, 29, said he looked out his third-floor window to see two young men of slight build in jackets engaged in “constant gunfire” with police officers. A police S.U.V. “drove towards the shooters,” he said, and was shot at until it was severely damaged. It rolled out of control, Mr. Kitzenberg said, and crashed into two cars in his driveway.

The two shooters, he said, had a large, unwieldy bomb that he said looked “like a pressure cooker.”

“They lit it, still in the middle of the gunfire, and threw it,” he said. “But it went 20 yards at most.” It exploded, he said, and one man ran toward the gathered police officers. He was tackled, but it was not clear if he was shot, Mr. Kitzenberg said.

The explosions, said another resident, Loretta Kehayias, 65, “lit up the whole house.” She said, “I screamed. I’ve never seen anything like this, never, never, never.”

Meanwhile, Mr. Kitzenberg said the other man got back into the S.U.V., turned it toward officers and “put the pedal to the metal.” The car “went right through the cops, broke right through and continued west.”

The two men left “a few backpacks right by the car, and there is a bomb robot out there now,” he said.

During this exchange, an MBTA police officer was seriously wounded and taken to the hospital.

At the same time, Tamerlan Tsarnaev was critically injured with multiple gunshot wounds and taken to Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital in Boston, where he was pronounced dead at 1:35 a.m., officials said.

A doctor who works at Beth Israel, and who lived in the area of the chase and shootout, said he was working at home around 1 a.m. when he heard the wailing sirens. He said at a news conference at Beth Israel that he recognized that something was wrong and alerted his emergency room to prepare for something.

Katharine Q. Seelye reported from Boston, and Michael Cooper from New York. Richard A. Oppel Jr, Jess Bidgood, Serge F. Kovaleski and John Eligon contributed reporting from Boston; William K. Rashbaum and Ravi Somaiya from New York; Eric Schmitt from Washington and Ellen Barry from Moscow.

This article has been revised to reflect the following correction:

Correction: April 19, 2013

 

An earlier version misspelled the name of a resident who described the police activity in Watertown, Mass. He is Andrew Kitzenberg, not Kitzenburg. An earlier version of this article also misstated where the suspects and police exchanged gunfire. It is Dexter Avenue, not Dexter Street.

 

19/04/2013 às 11h50m

De:http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/20/us/boston-marathon-bombings.html?hp&_r=0

Boston Marathon Blasts Kill 2, Police Say

 

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BOSTON — A series of explosions was reported near the finish line at the Boston Marathon on Monday, leaving two people dead and at least two dozen injured, according to the Boston Police Department.

A third explosion was heard just before 4 p.m., about an hour after the first two blasts. The police were apparently aware of that device before the explosion occurred.

The blasts took place about four hours after the start of the men’s race, which meant that there were still several thousand runners yet to finish the race. One senior counterterrorism official said it was too soon to tell whether the explosions were related to terrorism.

The Boston police confirmed they were looking into the explosions, but made no further comment. Another senior United States government official said that the Boston police and the F.B.I. said they had received no reports in recent days about a threat of an attack on the marathon and that there was no warning on Monday.

Several news outlets reported that a loud explosion was heard on the north side of Boylston Street, near a photo bridge that marks the finish line. Another explosion was heard several seconds later.

The Associated Press reported that authorities were helping injured runners leave the scene and that bloodied spectators were being carried to a medical tent that was being used for runners.

Bruce Mendelsohn, who works in a building near the explosion, said on Twitter that he saw blood on the sidewalks and about a dozen casualties.

Authorities in large cities are typically on the highest level of alert for events like a marathon, said Anthony Roman, a security expert.

“It is quite the counterterrorism effort,” said Mr. Roman, who runs Roman & Associates, a New York firm.

For major events in New York and other large cities, Mr. Roman said the police would typically weld manhole covers shut and examine the entire route just before the race. They would also place snipers on rooftops, with helicopters overhead, and analytic cameras in the city would be used, he said.

“They have all the analytic cameras in the city focusing on the race with their advanced software network, reading license plates,” Mr. Roman said.

The Boston Marathon is one of running’s most storied events, established in 1897 and one of the six World Marathon Majors. The event typically attracts an estimated 500,000 spectators and requires certain qualifying times for runners to compete.

The course winds throughout downtown Boston as well as several outlying cities, including Ashland, Framingham, Natick, Wellesley and Newton.

Unlike many sporting events that take place in closed arenas, marathons are known and heralded for their sprawl, allowing throngs of spectators to line the 26.2-mile course.

Within minutes of the explosions on Monday, social media and cable networks projected the images of gray smoke on Boylston Street, with emergency crews on the scene.

After the explosions, a spokesman for the New York Police Department said security was being increased at hotels and other prominent locations in New York.

Reporting was contributed by Steve Eder, William K. Rashbaum and Mary Pilon from New York, and Eric Schmitt from Washington.

 15/03/2013 às 17h42m

De:http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/16/us/explosions-reported-at-site-of-boston-marathon.html?hp&_r=0